Table of Contents
hping2 - send (almost) arbitrary TCP/IP packets to network hosts
[ -hvnqVDzZ012WrfxykQbFSRPAUXYjJBuTG ] [ -c count ] [ -i wait ] [ --fast ] [
-I interface ] [ -9 signature ] [ -a host ] [ -t ttl ] [ -N ip id ] [ -H ip protocol
] [ -g fragoff ] [ -m mtu ] [ -o tos ] [ -C icmp type ] [ -K icmp code ] [ -s
source port ] [ -p[+][+] dest port ] [ -w tcp window ] [ -O tcp offset ] [
-M tcp sequence number ] [ -L tcp ack ] [ -d data size ] [ -E filename ] [
-e signature ] [ --icmp-ipver version ] [ --icmp-iphlen length ] [ --icmp-iplen length
] [ --icmp-ipid id ] [ --icmp-ipproto protocol ] [ --icmp-cksum checksum ] [ --icmp-ts
] [ --icmp-addr ] [ --tcpexitcode ] [ --tcp-timestamp ] [ --tr-stop ] [ --tr-keep-ttl
] [ --tr-no-rtt ] hostname
hping2 is a network tool able to send custom TCP/IP packets
and to display target replies like ping program does with ICMP replies.
hping2 handle fragmentation, arbitrary packets body and size and can be
used in order to transfer files encapsulated under supported protocols.
Using hping2 you are able to perform at least the following stuff:
- Advanced port scanning
- Test net performance using different protocols,
packet size, TOS (type of service) and fragmentation.
- Path MTU discovery
- Transferring files between even really fascist firewall
- Traceroute-like under different protocols.
- Firewalk-like usage.
- Remote OS fingerprinting.
- TCP/IP stack auditing.
- A lot of others.
It's also a good didactic tool to learn TCP/IP. hping2 is developed and
maintained by firstname.lastname@example.org and is licensed under GPL version 2. Development
is open so you can send me patches, suggestion and affronts without inhibitions.
primary site at http://www.hping.org
You can found both the stable
release and the istruction to download the latest source code at http://www.hping.org/download.html
Default protocol is TCP, by default hping2 will send
tcp headers to target host's port 0 with a winsize of 64 without any tcp
flag on. Often this is the best way to do an 'hide ping', useful when target
is behind a firewall that drop ICMP. Moreover a tcp null-flag to port 0 has
a good probability of not being logged.
- -h --help
- Show an help screen on standard output, so you can pipe
- -v --version
- Show version information and API used to access to data
link layer, linux sock packet or libpcap
- -c --count count
- Stop after sending
(and receiving) count response packets. After last packet was send hping2
wait COUNTREACHED_TIMEOUT seconds target host replies. You are able to tune
COUNTREACHED_TIMEOUT editing hping2.h
- -i --interval
- Wait the specified number
of seconds or micro seconds between sending each packet. --interval X set
wait to X seconds, --interval uX set wait to X micro seconds. The default
is to wait one second between each packet. Using hping2 to transfer files
tune this option is really important in order to increase transfer rate.
Even using hping2 to perform idle/spoofing scanning you should tune this
option, see HPING2-HOWTO for more information.
- Alias for -i u10000. Hping
will send 10 packets for second.
- -n --numeric
- Numeric output only, No attempt
will be made to lookup symbolic names for host addresses.
- -q --quiet
output. Nothing is displayed except the summary lines at startup time and
- -I --interface interface name
- By default on linux and BSD systems
hping2 uses default routing interface. In other systems or when there is
no default route hping2 uses the first non-loopback interface. However you
are able to force hping2 to use the interface you need using this option.
Note: you don't need to specify the whole name, for example -I et will match
eth0 ethernet0 myet1 et cetera. If no interfaces match hping2 will try to
- -V --verbose
- Enable verbose output. TCP replies will be shown as follows:
len=46 ip=192.168.1.1 flags=RA DF seq=0 ttl=255 id=0 win=0 rtt=0.4 ms tos=0
iplen=40 seq=0 ack=1380893504 sum=2010 urp=0
- -D --debug
- Enable debug mode,
it's useful when you experience some problem with hping2. When debug mode
is enabled you will get more information about interface detection, data
link layer access, interface settings, options parsing, fragmentation,
HCMP protocol and other stuff.
- -z --bind
- bind CTRL+Z to time to live (TTL)
so you will able to increment/decrement ttl of outgoing packets pressing
CTRL+Z once or twice.
- -Z --unbind
- unbind CTRL+Z so you will able to stop hping2
- -0 --rawip
- RAW IP mode, in this mode
hping2 will send IP header with data appended with --signature and/or --file,
see also --ipproto that allows you to set the ip protocol field.
- -1 --icmp
mode, by default hping2 will send ICMP echo-request, you can set other ICMP
type/code using --icmptype --icmpcode options.
- -2 --udp
- UDP mode, by default hping2
will send udp to target host's port 0. UDP header tunable options are the
following: --baseport, --destport, --keep.
- -9 --listen signature
- HPING2 listen mode,
using this option hping2 waits for packet that contain signature and dump
from signature end to packet's end. For example if hping2 --listen TEST reads
a packet that contain 234-09sdflkjs45-TESThello_world it will display hello_world.
- -a --spoof hostname
- Use this option in order to set a fake
IP source address, this option ensures that target will not gain your real
address. However replies will be sent to spoofed address, so you will can't
see them. In order to see how it's possible to perform spoofed/idle scanning
see the HPING2-HOWTO.
- -t --ttl time to live
- Using this option you can set TTL
(time to live) of outgoing packets, it's likely that you will use this with
--traceroute or --bind options. If in doubt try ` hping2 some.host.com -t 1 --traceroute
- -N --id
- Set ip->id field. Default id is random but if fragmentation is turned
on and id isn't specified it will be getpid() & 0xFF , to implement a better
solution is in TODO list.
- -H --ipproto
- Set the ip protocol in RAW IP mode.
- Windows* id has different byte ordering, if this option is enable
hping2 will properly display windows reply ids.
- -r --rel
- Display id increments
instead of id. See the HPING2-HOWTO for more information. Increments aren't
computed as id[N]-id[N-1] but using packet loss compensation. See relid.c for
- -f --frag
- Split packets in more fragments, this may be useful
in order to test IP stacks fragmentation performance and to test if some
packet filter is so weak that can be passed using tiny fragments (anachronistic).
Default 'virtual mtu' is 16 bytes. see also --mtu option.
- -x --morefrag
- Set more
fragments IP flag, use this option if you want that target host send an
ICMP time-exceeded during reassembly.
- -y --dontfrag
- Set don't fragment IP flag,
this can be used to perform MTU path discovery.
- -g --fragoff fragment offset
- Set the fragment offset
- -m --mtu mtu value
- Set different 'virtual mtu'
than 16 when fragmentation is enabled. If packets size is greater that 'virtual
mtu' fragmentation is automatically turned on.
- -o --tos hex_tos
- Set Type Of
Service (TOS) , for more information try --tos help
- -G --rroute
- Record route.
Includes the RECORD_ROUTE option in each packet sent and displays the route
buffer of returned packets. Note that the IP header is only large enough
for nine such routes. Many hosts ignore or discard this option. Also note
that using hping you are able to use record route even if target host filter
ICMP. Record route is an IP option, not an ICMP option, so you can use record
route option even in TCP and UDP mode.
- -C --icmptype type
- Set icmp type, default is ICMP echo request (implies --icmp)
- -K --icmpcode code
- Set icmp code, default is 0. (implies --icmp)
- Set IP version of
IP header contained into ICMP data, default is 4.
- Set IP header
length of IP header contained into ICMP data, default is 5 (5 word of 32
- Set IP packet length of IP header contained into ICMP data,
default is the real length.
- Set IP id of IP header contained into
ICMP data, default is random.
- Set IP protocol of IP header contained
into ICMP data, default is TCP.
- Set ICMP checksum, for default
is the valid checksum.
- Alias for --icmptype 13 (to send ICMP timestamp
- Alias for --icmptype 17 (to send ICMP address mask requests)
- -s --baseport source port
- hping2 uses source port in
order to guess replies sequence number. It starts with a base source port
number, and increase this number for each packet sent. When packet is received
sequence number can be computed as replies.dest.port - base.source.port. Default
base source port is random, using this option you are able to set different
number. If you need that source port not be increased for each sent packet
use the -k --keep option.
- -p --destport [+][+]dest port
- Set destination port,
default is 0. If '+' character precedes dest port number (i.e. +1024) destination
port will be increased for each reply received. If double '+' precedes dest
port number (i.e. ++1024), destination port will be increased for each packet
sent. By default destination port can be modified interactively using CTRL+z.
- keep still source port, see --baseport for more information.
- -w --win
TCP window size. Default is 64.
- -O --tcpoff
- Set fake tcp data offset. Normal
data offset is tcphdrlen / 4.
- -M --tcpseq
- Set the TCP sequence number.
- -L --tcpack
- Set the TCP ack.
- -Q --seqnum
- This option can be used in order to collect sequence
numbers generated by target host. This can be useful when you need to analyze
whether TCP sequence number is predictable. Output example:
--seqnum -p 139 -S -i u1 -I eth0
HPING uaz (eth0 192.168.4.41): S set, 40 headers + 0 data bytes
The first column reports the sequence number, the second difference between
current and last sequence number. As you can see target host's sequence numbers
- -b --badcksum
- send packets with a bad UDP/TCP checksum
- enable the TCP timestamp option, and try to guess the timestamp update
frequency and the remote system uptime.
- -F --fin
- set FIN tcp flag.
- -S --syn
SYN tcp flag.
- -R --rst
- set RST tcp flag.
- -P --push
- set PUSH tcp flag.
- -A --ack
ACK tcp flag.
- -U --urg
- set URG tcp flag.
- -X --xmas
- set Xmas tcp flag.
- -Y --ymas
Ymas tcp flag.
The standard TCP output format is the following:
- -d --data data size
- set packet body size. Warning,
using --data 40 hping2 will not generate 0 byte packets but protocol_header+40
bytes. hping2 will display packet size information as first line output,
like this: HPING www.yahoo.com (ppp0 22.214.171.124): NO FLAGS are set, 40 headers
+ 40 data bytes
- -E --file filename
- Use filename contents to fill packet's data.
- -e --sign signature
- Fill first signature length bytes of data with signature.
If signature length is bigger than data size an error message will be displayed.
This option can be used safely with --file filename option, remainder data
space will be filled using filename
- -j --dump
- Dump received packets in hex.
- -J --print
- Dump received packets's printable characters.
- -B --safe
- Enable safe
protocol, using this option lost packets in file transfers will be resent.
For example in order to send file /etc/passwd from host A to host B you
may use the following:
[host_a]# hping2 host_b --udp -p 53 -d 100 --sign signature --safe --file /etc/passwd
[host_b]# hping2 host_a --listen signature --safe --icmp
- -u --end
- If you are using --file filename
option, tell you when EOF has been reached. Moreover prevent that other
end accept more packets. Please, for more information see the HPING2-HOWTO.
- -T --traceroute
- Traceroute mode. Using this option hping2 will increase ttl
for each ICMP time to live 0 during transit received. Try hping2 host --traceroute.
This option implies --bind and --ttl 1. You can override the ttl of 1 using
the --ttl option. Since 2.0.0 stable it prints RTT information.
the TTL fixed in traceroute mode, so you can monitor just one hop in the
route. For example, to monitor how the 5th hop changes or how its RTT changes
you can try hping2 host --traceroute --ttl 5 --tr-keep-ttl.
- If this option
is specified hping will exit once the first packet that isn't an ICMP time
exceeded is received. This better emulates the traceroute behavior.
- Don't show RTT information in traceroute mode. The ICMP time exceeded RTT
information aren't even calculated if this option is set.
with last received packet tcp->th_flag as exit code. Useful for scripts that
need, for example, to known if the port 999 of some host reply with SYN/ACK
or with RST in response to SYN, i.e. the service is up or down.
flags=RA DF seq=0 ttl=255 id=0 win=0 rtt=0.4 ms
len is the size, in bytes,
of the data captured from the data link layer excluding the data link header
size. This may not match the IP datagram size due to low level transport
ip is the source ip address.
flags are the TCP flags, R
for RESET, S for SYN, A for ACK, F for FIN, P for PUSH, U for URGENT, X
for not standard 0x40, Y for not standard 0x80.
If the reply contains DF
the IP header has the don't fragment bit set.
seq is the sequence number
of the packet, obtained using the source port for TCP/UDP packets, the
sequence field for ICMP packets.
id is the IP ID field.
win is the TCP
rtt is the round trip time in milliseconds.
If you run hping
using the -V command line switch it will display additional information
about the packet, example:
len=46 ip=192.168.1.1 flags=RA DF seq=0 ttl=255
id=0 win=0 rtt=0.4 ms tos=0 iplen=40 seq=0 ack=1223672061 sum=e61d urp=0
tos is the type of service field of the IP header.
iplen is the IP total
seq and ack are the sequence and acknowledge 32bit numbers in
the TCP header.
sum is the TCP header checksum value
urp is the TCP urgent
The standard output format is:
ip=192.168.1.1 seq=0 ttl=64 id=0 rtt=6.0 ms
The field meaning is just the
same as the TCP output meaning of the same fields.
example of ICMP output is:
ICMP Port Unreachable from ip=192.168.1.1 name=nano.marmoc.net
It is very simple to undestand. It starts with the string "ICMP" followed
by the description of the ICMP error, Port Unreachable in the example. The
ip field is the IP source address of the IP datagram containing the ICMP
error, the name field is just the numerical address resolved to a name
(a dns PTR request).
The ICMP Time exceeded during transit or reassembly
format is a bit different:
TTL 0 during transit from ip=192.168.1.1 name=nano.marmoc.net
The only difference is the description of the error, it starts with TTL
Salvatore Sanfilippo <email@example.com>, with the help of the people
mentioned in AUTHORS file and at http://www.hping.org/authors.html
using the --end and --safe options to transfer files the final packet will
be padded with 0x00 bytes.
Data is read without care about alignment, but
alignment is enforced in the data structures. This will not be a problem
under i386 but, while usually the TCP/IP headers are naturally aligned,
may create problems with different processors and bogus packets if there
is some unaligned access around the code (hopefully none).
Table of Contents